Clostridum Botulinum was identified by Prof. Emile Pierre avn Ermengem, of Ellezelles, Belgium
Purification process of Botulinum Toxin in crystalline form by Edward Schantz and colleagues.
Dr. Alan Scott of the Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Foundation in San Francisco initiated animal studies with Bot-Toxin-A. and thru the years collaborated with Dr. Schantz to develop Bot-toxin A for human treatment.
Dr. Scott formed his own company, Oculinum, Inc.
Allergan acquired the rights to distribute Oculinum
FDA approved Oculinum for use Strabismus and Blepharospasms. Shortly after, name was change to Botox (onabotulinum toximA)
FDA approved Botox for Cervical Dystonia
FDA approved Botox for the glabellar region
FDA approved Botox for axillary Hyperhidrosis
FDA approved DYSPORT(abotulinum toxin A) for glabellar region rhytids. Developed in UK, and used in Europe and world market since 1994
FDA approve XEOMIN (incobotulinum toxin A)-for therapeutic use ms spasms/cervical dystonia; Then in 2011 approval for Cosmetic use
FDA approved Botox for the treatment of increase muscle stiffness in the elbow, wrist and fingers.
FDA approved Jeaveau for improvement of frown lines
Botulinum Toxin is an acetylcholine release inhibitor and a neuromuscular blocking agent.
The botulinum products block the release of acetycholine, so muscle contractions are reduced.
Botulinum Toxin only works on “Dynamic Wrinkles” or “Wrinkles in motion”
The messenger, which is acetycholine is cut off, therefore muscles do not receive the message to move
In about 12 weeks, as nerve terminal heals, acetylcholine starts up again and muscle activity returns
Wrinkles “gradually” return as toxin wears off
With repeated injections, effects may last longer; fewer treatments may be needed
Areas of hyperdynamic muscles in the upper face (frown lines, crow’s feet and horizontal forehead lines). There are minimal side effects reported in these areas.
Immediate use of ice can minimize bruise formation
Edema will resolve within few hours of treatment. Firm compression of injection sites will decrease swelling.
Pain can be reduced using small-gauge needle, ice or topical anesthetics
Usually resolve within few days after treatment. NSAID’s are usually the adequate treatment for management of the headaches.
It is rare, but it can occur. Prolonged pain and erythema should be evaluated and treated.
Less Common toxin related complications (upper face):